Month: August 2018

The Basics of the Calvin Cycle

No Picture

The Calvin Cycle-or also known as the C3c cycle, Calvin-Benson Bassham (CBB) cycle, dark reaction, or reductive pentose phosphate cycle- was discovered by Melvin Calvin, James Bassham, and Andrew Benson in the year of 1950. This cycle does…

Read More »

Calibrating Parametric Estimation Models

Parametric Estimation models express output as a function of input, so for example expressing the cost of undertaking a project when expressed as a function of several variables is an example of an estimation model that uses parameters….

Read More »

Random Number Generation

No Picture

Random numbers are used in many places. The occurrence of sounds in nature, run time of buses between the same stops, travel time between home and office everyday, variable expenditure every month, predicting the face of a coin…

Read More »

Fishbone Diagram of Investigation

Fishbone diagram, also referred to as Ishikawa or Cause-and-effect diagram is used during the process of finding the main cause of a complex problem by arranging ideas into simple, organized and classified groups. As the name suggests, it…

Read More »

The Physics of Shooting Someone Out of a Cannon

Despite popular belief, the cannons that are used to shoot people high into the air does not use cannon powder. Instead they used compressed air to project the person forward. When the cannon is fired, a sled that…

Read More »

Sterility Testing in Sterile Pharmaceuticals

No Picture

The World Health Organization defines sterility as the absence of any viable microorganism. The problem with this definition is that such conditions would be too harsh for the existence of any active ingredients. For purposes of pharmaceuticals, a…

Read More »

Principle of PH Measurement

No Picture

The pH of a substance indicates how many hydrogen ions (H+) it forms in a certain measured volume of water. A pH meter shows the value as to how acidity or alkalinity a liquid is. The basic principle…

Read More »